Piracetam, ≥99%

PIRACETAM ≥99%

Chemical Name: 2-(2-Oxopyrrolidino)acetamide
Synonyms: 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide

CAS #: 7491-74-9

Piracetam is a Nootropic that displays cognitive enhancing properties. Proposed to enhance neurotransmission via modulation of ion flux. Through AMPA receptors, potentiates Na+ influx. Facilitates efficiency of cholinergic neurotransmission at muscarinic receptors.

Form: White powder
Molecular Formula:  C6H10N2O2

Molecular Weight:    142.16
Solubility:    Soluble to 100 mM in Water

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This Material is Sold For Research Use Only. Terms of Sale Apply. Not for Human Consumption, nor Medical, Veterinary, or Household Uses.

Chemical Information:

CAS Number:7491-74-9
Purity:≥99%
Molecular Weight:142.16 g/mol
Melting Point:129.5-130.5 °C ?
Molecular Formula:C6H10N2O
Synonyms: 2-(2-Oxopyrrolidino)acetamide, 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide, Pyracetam, 7491-74-9, Ciclofalina, Gabacet, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Pyramem
PubChem CID:4843
SMILES:NC(=O)CN1CCCC1=O

Technical Information:

Application:Piracetam is a modulator of neurotransmitter-induced ion flux, and is proposed to enhance neurotransmission via this modulation.
Appearance:White powder
Physical State:Solid
Solubility:Soluble to 100 mM in Water
Storage:Store at room temperature, in a sealed airtight container, protected from heat, light and humidity.
Stability:Stable for at least four years when stored as above.

Background:

Piracetam is a Nootropic that displays cognitive enhancing properties. Piracetam is a modulator of neurotransmitter-induced ion flux and is proposed to enhance neurotransmission via this modulation. Through AMPA receptors, Piracetam potentiates Na+ influx. Piracetam also facilitates the efficiency of cholinergic neurotransmission at muscarinic receptors.[1]

Further scientific research:

There has been a lot of scientific research conducted on Piracetam to date. Hundreds of human clinical studies have been conducted, and hundreds more animal studies. Piracetam is known to many as the ‘father’ of Nootropics – a substance from which many new Nootropics were developed. Many of the early claims about Piracetam’s abilities have since come under scrutiny.

Below, we outline some key findings in the recent Piracetam research.

Clinical Reviews:

Earlyin 2017, researchers published a review examining the previous data on Piracetam use for the improvement of post-stroke symptoms. This review looked specifically at the symptom of aphasia (the loss of speech ability). The authors included 7 trials in the meta-review, with over 261 patients in total. The conclusion was that Piracetam has the potential to play a limited role in the improvement of language and speech in patients who suffered from a stroke. It seemed to have a greater effect on the improvement of written language.[2]

One of the latest reviews on Piracetam, from 2016, looked into its efficacy as a treatment for sickle cell disease crisis. The authors found no reliable evidence to support the use of Piracetam as a medical treatment for sickle cell disease crisis.[3]

Another review from 2012 looked into the effects of using Piracetam for patients suffering from an ischaemic stroke. The review found no statistically significant improvement in symptoms across the board. The authors noted that no adverse effects were reported.[4]

Piracetam was included in a 2012 review on the evolution of cognitive enhancement substances (Nootropics). The review covered all the research on these substances for the previous 25 years.[5]

A third review was published in 2012, examining the effects of Piracetam for fetal distress in labor. The authors of the review found that there was not enough evidence to evaluate the use of Piracetam for fetal distress.[6]

A large review of the effectiveness of a number of Piracetam-based substances was published in 2010. In this review, the authors sought to find data regarding the efficacy of Piracetam and Piracetam-based substances for the following categories: i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischemia; and (v) stress and anxiety. The authors found that Piracetam had the potential to provide neuroprotective effects, especially when used during coronary bypass surgery. The authors also indicated that it seemed to be effective in improving mild cognitive disorders, but was more effective at improving mood.[7]

Piracetam was mentioned in a 2009 review entitled “Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders” as a Grade C treatment for autism spectrum disorders.[8]

Another 2009 review mentioned Piracetam as having been studied for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. However, the authors concluded that there was not enough well-collected data to demonstrate any convincing effects – primarily due to flaws in the previous studies.[9]

Piracetam was also mentioned (as Nootropil) in a 2008 review on the efficiency of Piracetam as a treatment for patients suffering from a cerebral stroke. This review was published in Russian.[10]

One of the earliest reviews published was on the use of Piracetam for the treatment of cortical myoclonus. The authors of the review concluded that Piracetam was highly effective at improving the quality of life in people affected by cortical myoclonus.[11]

Human Studies:

There are many human studies examining the effects of Piracetam. We will cover data from the some of the most recent trials below (please note that this is by no means a comprehensive summary of trails, it is merely intended to give an outline of the type of research being conducted on Piracetam):

A 2016 study found that Piracetam supplementation may improve neuroplasticity. This effect is hypothesized to be due to improved mitochondrial function and altered mitochondrial membrane permeability – directly associated with Piracetam use. The authors suggest that these effects may be beneficial for future studies on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease.[12]

A 2012 clinical trial on the effects of Piracetam on breath-holding spells found that there was a significant decline in breath-holding attacks after Piracetam use. The trial was conducted on 40 children who suffered from breath-holding spells (BHS) and was conducted over 4 months. There were no reported side effects during the study.[13]

A 2011 study found that 4.8 grams of Piracetam taken daily over 6 months had no clear benefits in improving speech in post-stroke patients. The study found that Piracetam was very well tolerated over the course of the study.[14]

Another 2011 study found that 12 grams of this compound had no cerebroprotective effects in patients undergoing open heart surgery.[15] A similar study conducted in 2011 found that 12 grams of this compound had significant results in reducing the effects of cognitive decline after coronary heart surgery.[16]

A 2008 study combined piracetam with a common treatment for autism over 10-weeks, at a piracetam dosage of 800mg/kg. The authors found a significant improvement in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale (total score) in the experimental group, suggesting a synergistic relationship between Piracetam and autism medication.[17]

A 2009 study found that 30mg/kg of Piracetam was effective for the prevention of postoperative memory loss and cognitive decline in children who had undergone general anesthesia.[18]

A 2007 study indicated the potential for Piracetam to help with involuntary muscle spasms. The study included 40 schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia (involuntary facial muscle spasms). The authors concluded that Piracetam appeared to be effective at reducing the spasms.[19]

There are hundreds more studies on the potential effects of Piracetam – we’ve included the most recent and relevant studies to give you an indication of the kind of research that has been conducted on this substance.

Animal Studies:

Due to the large number of human-based studies and reviews available for Piracetam, we have decided to exclude animal studies from this product description. The primary use of Piracetam is for improving cognitive performance in humans, making animal studies largely irrelevant.

References:

  • [1] Piracetam, Compound Summary for CID 4843. PubChem: Open Chemistry Database, available online from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/piracetam [Accessed Jul 16, 2018]
  • [2] Zhang J, Wei R, Chen Z, Luo B. (2016). Piracetam for Aphasia in Post-stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. CNS Drugs, 30(7):575-87.
  • [3] Al Hajeri A, Fedorowicz Z. (2016). Piracetamfor reducing the incidence of painful sickle cell disease crises. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2:CD006111.
  • [4] Ricii S, Celani MG, Cantisani TA, Righetti E.  (2012). Piracetam for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 9:CD000419
  • [5] Froestl W, Muhs A, Pfeifer A. (2012). Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. J Alzheimers Dis, 32(4):793-887.
  • [6] Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. (2012). Piracetam for fetal distress in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 6:CD001064.
  • [7] Malykh AG, Sadaie MR. (2010). Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. Drugs, 70(3):287-312.
  • [8] Rossignol DA. (2009). Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review, Ann Clin Psychiatry, 21(4):213-36.
  • [9]  Farlow MR. (2009. Treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Curr Alzheimer Res, 6(4):362-7.
  • [10] Gusev EI, Bogolepova AN. (2008). [Effectiveness of nootropil in the treatment of patients with cerebral stroke], (Article in Russian). Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova, 108(1):82-6.
  • [11] Genton P, Guerrini R, Remy C. (1999). Piracetam in the treatment of cortical myoclonus. Pharmacopsychiatry, 32 Suppl 1:49-53.
  • [12] Stockburger C, Miano D, Pallas T, Friedland K, Müller WE. (2016). Enhanced Neuroplasticity by the Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam Associated with Improved Mitochondrial Dynamics and Altered Permeability Transition Pore Function. Neural Plast, 2016:8075903.
  • [13] Sawires H, Botrous O. (2012). Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of piracetam on breath-holding spells. Eur J Pediatr, 171(7):1063-7.
  • [14] Güngör L, Terzi M, Onar MK. (2011). Does long term use of piracetam improve speech disturbances due to ischemic cerebrovascular diseases? Brain Lang, 117(1):23-7.
  • [15] Holinski S, Claus B, Alaaraj N, Dohmen PM, Neumann K, Uebelhack R, Konertz W. (2011). Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 17(2):137-42.
  • [16] Holinksi S, Claus B, Alaaraj N, Dohmen PM, Kirilova K, Neumann K, Uebelhack R, Konertz W. (2008). Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Med Sci Monit, 14(11):PI53-7.
  • [17] Akhondzadeh S, Tajdar H, Mohammadi MR, Mohammadi M, Nouroozinejad GH, Shabstari OL, Ghelichnia HA. (2008). A double-blind placebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev, 39(3):237-45.
  • [18] FensenkoUA. (2009). Piracetam improves children's memory after general anaesthesia. Anestezjol Intens Ter, 41(1):16-21.
  • [19] Libov I, Miodownik C, Bersudsky Y, Dwolatzky T, Lerner V. (2007). Efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tarlie dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. J Clin Psychiatry, 68(7):1031-7.

Precaution and Disclaimer:

This Material is Sold For Research Use Only. Terms of Sale Apply. Not for Human Consumption, nor Medical, Veterinary, or Household Uses.

[Piracetam Q4 2017] Piracetam.20170755.pdf

[Piracetam Q2 2015] Piracetam.150411041.pdf